Province of Nepal | Strengths and Weaknesses

provinces of Nepal
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Strengths and Weaknesses of provinces of Nepal

The new constitution of Nepal has classified the political division of Nepal into three-tier government; Federal government, provincial government, and local level government. The provinces of Nepal were formed on 20th September 2015 according to schedule 4 of the Nepalese constitution. Altogether, seven provinces were formed including the existing districts. This system replaced the initial system of regional division in which Nepal was divided into five development regions (Eastern, Central, Western, Mid-Western, and Far Western Development Region). The list of provinces of Nepal with their major strengths and weaknesses are as follows:

Province No.1:

Province no. 1 is the previous Eastern Development Region of Nepal. It borders with India in the south and east and China in the north. The province comprises of 14 dis situated from the Himalayan region in the north to the Terai region in the south. The areas are Taplejung, Panchthar, Illam, Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Bhojpur, Khotang, Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga, Udaypur, Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari. This province possesses about 18% of the all-out area (25,905 sq km) of Nepal and about 17% populace (45.5 lakh) as per the last National Census.

As there are high mountains including Everest (8,848 m) and Kanchanjungha (8,586 m) in the Himalayan regions, there are charming slopes in the inside and broad fields in the south. Province no. 1 is rich water assets and woodland assets. Sapta Koshi (Arun, Tamer, Dudhkoshi, Likhu (Barun), Tamakoshi, Sunkoshi, and Indrawati), Kankai, Mechi, Kabeli, Mai Khola, and so forth are the significant waterways through Sagarmatha National Park, Makalu-Barun National Park, Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Kanchanjungha Conservation Area, and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve are significant areas of backwoods, wildlife, and view.

Province no. 1 is occupied by a few ranks and networks of individuals, for example, Rai, Limbu, Rajbansi, Tharu, and Dhimal alongside Brahmin and Chhetry. Significant urban communities incorporate Biratnagar, Dharan, Damak, Bhadrapur, Inaruwa, Itahari, Ilam, Okhaldhunga, Dhankuta, and Birtamod. Everest area, Namche, Ilam, Baraha Kshetra, Biratnagar, Pathivara, Halesi Mahadev, and so on are significant visitor centers while Biratnagar, Damak, Dharan, Bhadrapur, Inaruwa, Itahari, and Dhankuta major mechanical locales.

This province is associated with a few street areas, for example, East-West Highway and Mid-slope Highway (east segment), Dharan-Dhankuta Highway and Mechi Highway, furnishing (tea, jute, cardamom alongside rice, maize, and so forth), creature cultivation, the travel industry, exchange and business, administration, mining, angling, and so forth are the wellsprings of acquiring for the individuals there. This province is one of the most industrialized and created regions of Nepal.

Capital: Biratnagar

Districts: 14

Area: 29,905 sq. km

Governor: Som Nath Adhikari ‘Pyasi’

Chief Minister: Sher Dhan Rai

Major strengths of Province no 1:

  1. It has a three-fold geographical division varying between an altitude of 58 meters to 8848 meters and has tourism prospects.
  2. The highest peak of the world, Sagarmatha lies in this province.
  3. The lowest point of Nepal, Kechana Kawal (58m) lies in this province.
  4. It has high hydropower potential as the Koshi river flows through it.
  5. Huge industrial potential
  6. Medical and educational hub.

Weaknesses of Province no 1:

  1. Most parts of this province are not suitable for agricultural yield.
  2. Extreme temperature during summer and winter.
  3. Flood and river erosions during monsoons.
  4. Despite Biratnagar being the economic capital of this province, infrastructures are not sustainable.
  5. Unplanned industrialization.
  6. Overpopulation and extreme pollution.

Province No.2:

Province no. 2 is the littlest province of Nepal regarding its physical domain. It involves just 8 Terai regions lying between Chitwan in the west and Sunsari in the east. They are Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusha, Mahottari, Sarlahi, Rautahat, Bara, and Parsa. This is scarcely 7% (9,661 sq km) of the complete land area of Nepal. In any case, it has a high thickness of the populace. As per the insights of the last statistics, there live around 54 lakh individuals that are about 20.5% of the complete populace of the entire nation.

Province no. 2 has a level plain and hot wet atmosphere. The scope of low slopes called Chure has thick tropical backwoods called Charkoshe Jhadi. Parsa Wildlife Reserve lies in this province. As the dirt is ripe and the water system is great, numerous harvests, for example, paddy, mustard, beans, natural products, tobacco, and sugarcane are developed in high amounts in this province. This province is very more created in the mechanical area than in different provinces. Birgunj, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, Simara: Nijgadh and Chandra Nigahapur are among the mechanical and exchange focus of province no 2. Birgunj is one of the most significant section Points from the south. Be that as it may, this province has poor human advancement markers, essentially training and wellbeing. This province has a rich culture and convention with closer affinities with that of India. Ethnic people group, for example, Tharus, Musalmans, and so on alongside basic Nepali standings, Brahmin, Chhetry just as Yadavs and Marwadis are the significant occupants and Janakpurdham, Gadhimai and Chinnamasta are significant journey locales.

Capital: Janakpur

Districts: 8

Area: 9,661 sq. km

Governor: Tilak Pariyar

Chief Minister: Mohammad Lal Babu Raut

Major strengths of province no 2:

  1. Trade possibilities as it is bordered by India in the south.
  2. Trade expansions are possible as six different railways are in pipeline in this province.
  3. Tourism prospects are seen as there are some major places of highlights like Janaki Temple, Koshi barrage, Gateway of Nepal – Birgunj, Gadhimai Temple.
  4. Densely populated that supplies enough manpower to the country.

Weaknesses of Province no 2:

  1. Second most populous province. This causes the dearth of facilities.
  2. Smallest province by area. This results in unequal distribution development returns.
  3. Poorly developed transportation and access.
  4. Presence of 59 rural municipalities which are great challenges to urbanize province no 2.

Province No. 3 (Gandaki Province):

Province no. 3 contains the national capital of Nepal, for example, Kathmandu. 13 regions to be specific Dolakha, Ramechhap, Sindhuli, Kavrepalanchowk, Sindhupalchowk, Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Dhading, Chitwan, Makawanpur, Bhaktapur, Lalitpur and Kathmandu fall under this province. It possesses about 14% (20,300 sq km) of the absolute land and 55.5 lakh individuals. The populace share is about 21% of the entire nation as indicated by the last registration.

This province likewise extends from the north toward the south of Nepal, however not completely. There are numerous high mountains in the north, for example, the Langtang and Rolwaling. There are slopes and valleys, for example, Kathmandu and Sindhuli in the middle and plain of Chitwan in the south. The significant waterways incorporate Trishuli, Indrawati, Bhotekoshi, Tamakoshi, Sunkoshi, Bagmati and Kamala while Gosainkunda, Indrasarovar, Bishajari Taal and Chho Rolpa are significant lakes and lakes. Langtang National Park, Chitwan National Park, Parsa Wildlife Reserve, and Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park are major ensured areas and significant urban communities are Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Hetauda, Bharatpur, Banepa and Dhulikhel.

This province has rich social assorted varieties. Brahmin, Chhetry, Newar, Tamang, Sherpa, Tharu, Chepang, Jirel, and so on are the positions and networks living there. Kathmandu, Rasuwa, Jiri, Chitwan, Nagarkot, and so on are extremely well-known vacationer goals among guests. There is an enormous number of ventures in Kathmandu Valley, Banepa, Hetaunda, Bharatpur, and so forth. The significant wellsprings of gaining for the individuals in Province n0. 3 are cultivating, creature farming, the travel industry, assembling, exchange and business, administration, mining, angling, and so on.

Capital: Hetauda (Temporary)

Districts: 13

Area: 20, 300 sq. km

Governor: Bishnu Prasain

Chief Minister: Dormani Poudel

Major strengths of province no 3:

  1. It is the home to the country’s capital city, Kathmandu.
  2. High tourism prospects.
  3. High reserve of mineral ores in Phulchoki, Langtang and other areas.
  4. Rich in temples, arts, and artifacts
  5. Administrative center of Nepal, education and medical hub, International airport.
  6. Well developed infrastructures of development.

Weaknesses of Province no 3:

  1. The most populated province of Nepal adds fuel to unemployment.
  2. Heavily polluted and the problem of waste management.
  3. High risk of disasters like earthquakes, landslides, and erosion.
  4. Price hike due to inflation and costly lifestyle.
  5. Over exploited natural and physical resources.
  6. Biasness due to centralization.

Province No. 4:

Province no. 4 misleads the west of Province no. 3 and runs from the north toward the south of the nation. It comprises of 11 locales by and large – Gorkha, Lamjung, Tanahun, Kaski, Manang, Mustang, Parvat, SYangja, Myagdi, Baglung just as Nawalpur. It has a portion of 14.696 (21,504 sq km) of the all-out land area and simply over 9% (241akh) of the absolute populace of the nation. Annapurna Conservation Area, Manaslu Conservation Area, and Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve have been created as ensured areas in this province. The significant streams in this province are the tributaries of the Saptagandaki waterway framework, in particular, Seti, Kaligandaki, Daraundi, Madi, Marsyangdi, Trishuli, and Budhi popular. Province no. 4 has lakes like Phewa, Rupa, Begnas and so forth. Ghandruk, Gorkha, Damauli, Palpa, Dhorpatan, and so on are significant goals for guests. Muktinath, Manakamana, Rishikesh, Baglung Kalika, Galeshwar, Maulakali and Devghat (Tanahun), and so on are renowned strict locales.

Major financial exercises of this province are cultivating, creature farming, the travel industry, exchange and business, administration, mining, and remote employment. There are unique settlements of ethnic networks principally Thakalis, Gurungs, and Magars.

Capital: Pokhara

Districts: 11

Area: 21,504 sq. km

Governor: Amik Sherchan

Chief Minister: Prithivi Subba Gurung

Major strengths of Province no 4 (Gandaki Province):

  1. Great tourism prospects as Pokhara is rich in tourist sites.
  2. Great historical importance as Gorkha Durbar lies here.
  3. Plenty of natural resources, forest variation, lakes, and terrain.
  4. Huge hydroelectric potential.
  5. Large linguistic, cultural and ethnic diversity.

Weaknesses of Province no 4 (Gandaki Province):

  1. Little connection to open the Indian border that affects trade.
  2. Negative Population Growth Rate and Sex ratio.
  3. Low agricultural possibilities.
  4. Low literacy rate (74.81%)
  5. More than 50% of the population is a dependent population that creates a burden on the working group of people.

Province No. 5:

Province no. 5 comprises of 12 regions of the slopes and Terai: Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, East Rukum, Rolpa, Pyuthan, Dang, Banke, and Bardiya. It covers an area of 22, 288 sq km which is about 15% of the absolute area of the nation. It’s occupied by about 50 lakh individuals of assorted networks. This is 18.5% of the complete populace of the entire nation.

This province does exclude any high mountains. There are slopes and valleys in the north and level Terai plain in the south. Rapti, Tinau, Babai, and Badigad are fundamental waterways and Satyawati, Barakune, Jagdishpur Taal are primary lakes. The southern part has extremely rich soil and water system offices so it is significant for agribusiness. Lumbini, the origination of Gautam Buddha is a fascination with Province no. 5. Swargadwari, Ridi, Thakurdwara, and Bageshwari are other significant journey locales and visitor goals Butwal, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Kohalpur and Tansen are among the significant business focuses.

Capital: Butwal (Temporary)

Districts: 12

Area: 22,288 sq. km

Governor: Dharma Nath Yadav

Chief Minister: Shankar Pokharel

Major strengths of Province no 5:

  1. The only hunting reserve of Nepal, Dhorpatan hunting reserve lies here.
  2. The home of Bengal tiger at Bardiya National Park lies here.
  3. Tourism potential as the birthplace of Lord Buddha, Lumbini lies here.
  4. Borders India in the south that favors import and export.
  5. Industrial city ‘Butwal’ lies here.

Weaknesses of Province no 5:

  1. No linkage with china Border.
  2. Low HDI of 0.519.
  3. Low literacy of 66.43% and unequal sex ratio of 90:100.
  4. 73 rural municipalities to transform that needs huge effort and long term planning.
  5. Population density is 200 per sq. km which is higher than the national average. This contributes to unemployment.

Province No. 6 (Karnali Province):

10 hilly and Himalayan regions to be specific Rukum, Salyan, Dolpa, Jumla, Mugu, Humla, Kalikot, Jajarkot, Dailekh, and Surkhet make up Province no. 6 of Nepal. This is generally the area 0f Bheri and Karnali zone. The province gathering there has just chosen the name and fixed the capital. It’s ‘Karnali Province’ with its capital in Surkhet.

Province no. 6 is, for the most part, mountainous and hilly. There are high mountain ranges, for example, the Chandi, Gorakh, Kanti, Gautam, and Kanjirowa in the north. In like manner, there are high slopes, valleys, tars and bowls in the south. There is a fruitful valley region in the south, which is ripe. The Karnali waterway and its tributaries – Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Sani Bheri, Thuli Bheri, Tila, Seti, and Budhiganga are the significant streams depleting this province. Karnali Province has more prominent difficulties. Land difficulties, destitution, backwardness and poor human advancement are significant ones. It’s a genuine test for the entire nation.

Both common government and government need to work adequately with legitimate coordination with nearby levels for confronting these difficulties and change the destiny of this region.

Capital: Birendranagar

Districts: 10

Area: 27,984 sq. km

Governor: Govinda Kalauni

Chief Minister: Mahendra Bahadur Shahi

Major strengths of Province no 1 (Karnali province):

  1. The largest province of Nepal with huge resources.
  2. Tourism promotion with major highlights; Sinja Valley, Kanjirova, Simikot, etc.
  3. Huge hydroelectricity potential as Karnali river flows through this province.
  4. A huge reserve of Uranium.
  5. The largest lake of Nepal ‘Rara lake’ is in Province no 6.

Weaknesses of Province no 6 (Karnali province):

  1. Low HDI of 0.469.
  2. Low literacy rate of 62.77%.
  3. Mass unemployment.
  4. Less agricultural yield due to infertile soil.
  5. Borders only with china.
  6. Least population density leads to a shortage of manpower.
  7. Less amount of infrastructure of development.

Province No. 7 (SudurPaschim Province):

Province no. 7 is exactly equivalent to the previous Far Western Development. In this way, it spreads from the north toward the south of Nepal along its western national border with India and comprises of 9 regions by and large. They are Bajura, Bajhang, Doti, Achham, Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, Kanchanpur and Kailali. Along these lines, the physical and financial features incredibly change here and there over this province.

There are high ranges, for example, Gurans Himal and Byas Rishi Himal and mountain pinnacles, for example, API, Saipal, Nampa, and Yokapahad in the north. The significant streams incorporate Mahakali, Seti, Budhiganga, Karnali, Ghat Khola, Mohana, and Charlene. Khaptad and Ghodaghodi lake are famous. Khaptad National Park and Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve are ensured locales.

Dhangadhi, Fikapur, Kanéhénpur, Dadeldhura, Attaria, Silgadhi, Dipayal are urban and modern locales. This westernmost region of Nepal is populated by networks of Brahmin, Chhetry, Tharus, Musalmans, Bhotes, and so forth. Khaptad, Gokuleshwar, Mallikarjun, Siddhababa and Shaileshowari, and so forth are significant spots of interest for guests.

Capital: Dhangadi/ Godawari

Districts: 9

Area: 19,539 sq. km

Governor: Sharmila Kumari Panta

Chief Minister: Trilochan Bhatta

Major strengths of Province no 7 (SudurPaschim Province):

  1. Borders with both India and China that facilitates better trade.
  2. Tourism potentiality (Saipal, Api Himal, Lakes, National Parks, etc.)
  3. The historical significance of the ancient kingdom Doti.
  4. Tikapur is the biggest city in this province which serves the best transit point of Nepal-India border.
  5. Agricultural possibilities.

Weaknesses of Province no 7 (SudurPaschim Province):

  1. Low HDI of 0.478.
  2. Low literacy rate of 63.48%.
  3. Frequently hit by storms and winds.
  4. Massive poverty and unemployment.
  5. The least developed province with the lowest facilities and infrastructures.
  6. Low social development.
  7. Superstition and crimes are rampant.

The FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) | Quick Facts:

a. What are the 7 provinces of Nepal?

Answer: The seven provinces of Nepal are Province no 1, Province no 2, Province no 3, Gandaki Province, Province no 5, Karnali Province and Sudurpaschim Province.

b. Which is the biggest province of Nepal?

Answer: Province no 6 (Karnali Province is the biggest province of Nepal.

c. Which is the smallest Province of Nepal?

Answer: Province no 2 is the smallest province of Nepal.

d. What is the province of Kathmandu?

Answer: The Province of Kathmandu is Province no 3. It is the capital city of Nepal.

e. Why is Nepal divided into 7 provinces?

Answer: Nepal was divided into  7 provinces to redistribute the power and authority and ensure equitable and balanced development in the country.

f. Which province has the most forest area in Nepal?

Answer: Province no 5 has the most forest area in Nepal.

g. Which province has the least forest area in Nepal?

Answer: Province no 7 (SudurPaschim province) has the least forest area in Nepal.


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