Problems of Agriculture in Nepal:
1. The pressure of population on land: The pressure of population on land is high. Majority of farmers own less than one hectares land. There are sub-division and fragmentation of land holdings. The cultivation is expensive and there is disguised unemployment in agriculture. So, productivity is very low.
2. Use of old technique: Subsistence farming is still continuing in Nepal. There is no commercial farming. Majority of farmers are illiterate. They still use old techniques of production. There is an inadequate supply of agricultural materials and credit.
3. Inadequate irrigation facility: Irrigation is the lifeblood of agriculture but it is not adequate in Nepal. Nepal’s agriculture is largely dependent on monsoon. This creates risk in production.
4. Inadequate agricultural credit: Most of the people in Nepal living in rural areas are farmers. They need adequate credit to invest in agriculture. The institutional sources of credit are beyond the rich of farmers due to insecurities and formalities.
5. Extreme poverty: 27.4% of the rural population is below the poverty line. The farmers do not have the fund to invest in agriculture. They are compelled to borrow funds from traditional sources paying high interest.
6. Lack of marketing facility: The rural areas lack marketing facility due to the absence of transport. Farmers are compelled to sell their products at a cheap cost to local shopkeepers and market agents. So, they are not encouraged to invest and produce more.
7. Lack of storage facility: The farmers sell the products at a low price during the harvesting season due to lack of storage facility. They cannot store to sell at a time when demand and price are high.
a) Defective land tenure system.
b) Lack of agricultural research.
c) Defective government policy.
d) Lack of training facilities for farmers.
Remedial Measures of Agriculture in Nepal:
1. Control of population: The pressure of population on land is high. It has led to the fragmentation of holding. The increase in population leads to less investment on land which leads to low productivity. So, population growth should be controlled.
2. Expansion if irrigation facility: Access to irrigation is a major determinant of land productivity and stability of yields. Efforts should be made to make available adequate irrigation facilities around the year. It also ensures crop diversification.
3. Provision of adequate credit: the investment in agriculture is low due to the low level of income. Since the farmers are very poor, they are unable to invest in modern agricultural inputs. So, the government should increase access to financial services for farmers.
4. Provision of agricultural inputs: One of the problems of agriculture is non-availability inputs like fertilizers, manures, tools and implement improved seeds. These inputs should be supplied adequately to increase production.
5. Marketing and storage facility: The farmers have not been able to get a reasonable price due to the lack of adequate marketing and storage facilities. So, marketing and storage facility should be made available to encourage productions.
6. Agricultural research and extension: Majority of farmers are illiterate and ignorant. They cannot us modern farming techniques because of their ignorance. The government should promote innovations through science and technology, invest in agriculture research and provide training to farmers.
a) Transfer of ownership to farmers.
b) Effective government policy.
c) Increase access to education and health.