Development of society
Society is an association of people sharing the same geographical territory and has friendship, trust, and unity. The English word ‘society’ was derived from the French word ‘societe’ which in turn has its origin in the Latin word ‘societ’. As the process of the positive changes led to the beginning and continuous evolution of society. Some of the features of society are -diversity, likeness, co-operation, friendship, conflicts, etc.
The relation between individuals and society.
An individual living in a society and society is formed by individuals. Society is formed by the practice of living together by individuals. In ancient times, human beings were also similar to other creatures but in course of time as they felt difficulties in finding foods, so they started cultivation and animal rearing. They also made their permanent settlement and started living in groups. They also formed rules and implemented them and society was formed. Society secures individuals since living alone can be risky and irrational too. The needs and desires of an individual can be fulfilled with the help of members in society. Similarly, society needs certain rules, regulations, and leadership that are formed by individuals. Hence, society and individuals are interrelated.
Major features of society:
Every human society possesses certain features. Some of the major features of society are:-
Features of development of society:
The features of the development of society are simplicity to complexity, unity to diversity, barbarity to civilization, primitiveness to modernity and equality to inequality.
Different types of societies:
- Hunting and gathering societies:-
Hunting and gathering societies are the earliest types of societies. In this type of societies, the members survive primarily by hunting, trapping, fishing and gathering edible plants. They spend most of their time to feed themselves.
- Pastoral societies:-
Pastoral societies can also be called as animal rarer societies. In this type of society, people live mostly by producing their needs through domestication and breeding of animals. Some people also work in other areas such as making tools, weapons, etc.
- Horticultural societies:-
Horticultural societies are the society in which people feed themselves by growing fruits, vegetables and plants. They move less frequently for finding new areas for fruit cultivation.
- Agricultural societies:-
Agricultural societies are also called agrarian societies. Cultivation of crops for food and keeping of farm animals are the major characteristics of it. These types of societies are supposed o have originated about 8,500 years ago from Egypt.
- Industrial societies:-
Industrial societies emerged at the background of the background in the industrial revolution in the 15th and 16th centuries. In industrial societies, most people work in manufacturing trade and services with little people still cultivating land but in commercial and technological ways.
Difference between agrarian and industrial societies:
· The main occupation is farming.
· The main occupation is manufacturing and trade.
· They grow crops in large land in the traditional way.
· They grow crops in a small area in a commercial and technological way.
· Lifestyle is not so good.
· Lifestyle is a high standard.
· It gives rise to feudalism.
· It gives rise to capitalism.
· It is mostly in practice in underdeveloped and developing countries.
· It is mostly in practice in highly developed countries.
TerritoryElements of Society:-
The territory is the basic elements of society. The size of the territory is not fixed. It may be small or large. Within the territory, people share their feelings, love, cooperation, etc.
Population means the number of members living in the society. The size of the population may be small or big. It depends upon the territory, availability of means and resources.
Every society is stable. The members have a permanent attachment to their territory, group and means, and resources.
Qualities of Society:-
Society gives collective security. One feels secure because of others.
Members of the good society have a good sense of ownership. Everyone thinks his/her society is for his/her own benefit. It encourages activeness and sense of responsibility.
- Obedience to rules
Rules must be followed when people start living in an association. Everyone has his/her duties and responsibilities. Members of a good society are obedient to rules and regulations.
More elements and qualities of society:
-self-origin and development
-Rules and obedience to them
-Respect to the past
-Obedience to rules
-Goodwill and love