Causes of high population Growth:
Illiteracy is the main cause of population growth in Nepal. Many Nepalese people are illiterate and are unaware of the effects of population and its burden on family and society. They keep on giving birth to more number of children. Most of the uneducated Nepalese people have an attitude that the number of children a couple gives birth is controlled by fate.
- Social Beliefs:
Many Nepalese people have the religious and social belief that the main purpose of marriage is to have children. They even have strong blind faith regarding son. To continue the generations and property inheritance, they desire a son and give birth to many children.
- Religious belief:
People have faith that the door of heaven cannot be opened unless they have a son. It is also believed that only a son child can perform funeral rites and Shraddha. So, they have a strong desire for a son and give birth to many children.
Nepalese people also want to have more children as they think children shall be a source of income in the future. They feel that more hands in a family mean more income in the future. They do not consider that they also need to invest in their children after birth which needs more income.
Nepalese people also have a concept that more children make a big family and a big family makes home strong. The family structure of Nepal plays an important role to keep the fertility rate high. There is mostly a joint family system in the rural areas of the country and the members have a feeling of competition among themselves of giving birth to a high number of children.
- High Infant Mortality:
Another cause of population growth is IMR, due to which many infants die every day. Parents are not sure that all of their children will survive. Therefore, they want to give birth to many children.
Polygamy has declined in recent years but has not stopped. A man gets married to multiple women, and these women give birth to multiple babies. This leads to more population.
- Cultural factors:
This all causes high birth rates. Many people do not want to apply measures of family planning. They think that it is unholy to use family planning measures and prevent conception. They believe that the birth of a child is a gift of God.
- Women’s Status:
Women have an important role in childbearing and family management. But in our country, many women are still suppressed, undervalued, deprived and illiterate. Preference goes to a son who is supposedly required to run important social, cultural and economic affairs and rituals. Women mostly do domestic and agricultural jobs. Such a dominated status of women is a major cause of high birth rates in Nepal.
Large numbers of people from Sikkim, Assam, Bhutan and other parts of the world have migrated to Nepal. Since we have an open border with India, many Indians are staying illegally in Nepal. This also contributes to population growth in Nepal.